The correlation of age hardening behavior and Si precipitation in α(Al) of Al-8wt%Si-0.35wt%Mg alloy has been investigated by micro hardness measurement, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The EPMA results show that Si concentration in the center of α (Al) dendrites is higher than that in the edge and the main concentration is about 1.5wt% for Al-8wt%Si-0.35wt%Mg alloy in as cast condition. After solution treatment at 530 °C for 8 h followed by water quenching (T4 treatment), hardness value decreases 9 HV, which is accompanied by the decrease of Si concentration in α (Al). Aging the as-cast sample and T4 treatment sample at 150 °C for 20 h, the main concentration of Mg and Si in α (Al) changes little. Hardness value after as-cast aging is only 3 HV lower than that after T6 treatment. Nanometer Si particles and β″ and/or β′ phases are found in aged samples. The higher hardness value for as-cast aging samples should contribute to the nanometer Si particles in α (Al).