The microwave is the electromagnetic radiation with the frequency in the between 300 MHz~300GHz. The microwave technology in metallurgy application research are mainly in heating, drying, oxide reduction, mineral processing such as the pretreatment of refractory gold and waste treatment, and metal recovery. The stone coal vanadium ore grinded was dealt with the microwave pretreatment in this article, in order to study the effect of factors such as the heating-up characteristics and weightlessness rate of this ore, and then the ore by pretreatment was carried on the leaching experiments, compared with the vanadium mine with no microwave pretreatment, the results was shown that every different microwave pretreatment way were able to improve leaching rate. The ore pretreated by microwave with heating 5 minutes, the leaching rate was improved almost 13% compared with the routine leaching. If the time for no treatment was increased, the stone coal vanadium ore had been already sintered, instead, reducing the leaching rate.