Basing on the coupled vibration theory, dynamic behavior of steel bridge deck thin surfacing under rand moving vehicles is studied. A three-dimensional coupled model is carried out for the steel bridges deck thin surfacing and vehicle. A method based on modal superposition and state space technique is developed to solve dynamic response generated by vehicle-surfacing interaction. The dynamic responses of an actual steel bridge deck thin surfacing are studied. The results show that adding epoxy asphalt as a sub coat can improve interface adhesion strength, which would be designed as the interface layer of steel deck thin surfacing.