Polyvinglpyrrolidone (PVP), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (P123) were used as templates, respectively. The morphology, structure and luminescent properties of the products were characterized and studied. The results show that all the products are pure LaPO4 with hexagonal structure. Comparing with the morphologies of LaPO4:Eu3+ nanocrystals prepared with PVP and CTAB as templates, the LaPO4:Eu3+ nanocrystals with P123 as template present regular spherical structure. The sizes of all products are in the range of 50–120 nm. When ultrasonic time was 2 h, the tendency, intensity and stability of fluorescent irradiation is obviously difference with different templates. In addition, the luminescent intensity of the LaPO4:Eu3+ nanocrystals using PVP as template is the strongest and using P123 as template is the weakest. All above results indicate that the template kinds have played an important role in the morphology and luminescent properties of the LaPO4:Eu3+ nanocrystals.