In this paper, a novel no-asbestos brake composite reinforced by natural bamboo fibers is studied. The bamboo fibers are modified by heat treatment, alkali treatment and coupling treatment respectively. Tribological performance of different fibers reinforced composites are developed by means of friction test and microstructure observation. The results show that heat treatment of bamboo fibers at 140 for 4 hours makes the friction and wear characteristics of brake composites more stable than the untreated ones, but poor wear resistance at low temperature and heat fade still exist. There is no significant change on fiber surface. The alkali treatment of 17% NaOH solution for 12 hours contributes to desirable combination of higher friction coefficients and lower wear rates, and the surface morphology shows a number of deep grooves that avail the interface bonding. The effect of coupling treatment with KH550 on tribological performance of composites have the similar rule to that of the alkali treated ones except of heat fade, and the fiber surface is evenly coated with the coupling agent, which enhances the bonding of fibers and resin but fails at elevated temperature.