Due to the poor thermal conduction of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), some fillers are often added into PTFE matrix to improve its thermal conduction and enhance its tribological performance. In our work, to increase their thermal conduction, the PTFE composites with different contents of copper particles were prepared. The friction and wear properties of the composites were tested. The effect of thermal conduction on tribological properties of the PTFE based composites was analyzed, and the wear mechanisms were also discussed. The results showed that with the increase of the thermal conductivity of the PTFE based composites, the coefficient of friction of the materials reduced, and the wear of the materials was dramatically decreased.