Copper matrix composites with different La2O3 content were fabricated by powder metallurgy method. Sliding wear behavior of the Cu-La2O3 composites was carried out by using a pin-on-disk wear tester under dry sliding conditions at a constant sliding speed of 20 m/s. The results showed that the wear rate of the composites was significantly lower than that of pure copper. The friction coefficient and wear rate of Cu matrix composites decreased significantly by incorporation of La2O3 particles. For determination of the wear mechanisms of the composites, the worn surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the main wear mechanisms of the sintered copper-La2O3 composites were oxidation wear and adhesive wear.