In this work, we describe a novel facile method to prepare long one-dimensional hybrid nanofibers by using hydrated bacterial cellulose nanofibers (BCF) as template. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles with an average diameter of 1.5 nm were well dispersed on BC nanofibers via a simple in situ chemical-reduction between AgNO3 and NaBH4 at relatively low temperature. The bare BCF and as-prepared Ag/BCF hybrid nanofibers were characterized by a range of analytical techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV–vis absorption spectra (UV–vis). The results reveal that Ag nanoparticles were homogeneously precipitated on the BCF surface. The results indicate that Ag/BCF hybrid nanofibers are promising candidate materials for functional antimicrobial agents.