Tussah silk fibroin (TSF)/hydroxyapatite (HAP) composites were prepared using the co-precipitation method. The results indicate that pure HAP presents needle-like structure with a length of 120-160 nm and a width of 30-40 nm. TSF/HAP composite prepared by adding 8% TSF exhibits a spherical structure, while with the increase of TSF content, the morphology of the composites changed from spherical to short rod, and the length of composite increases from 78 to 146 nm, but the width keep stability. FTIR spectra show the absorption peaks of TSF/HAP composite attributed to the amide and PO43- shift with the addition of TSF, indicating the existence of interaction between HAP and TSF molecules. TSF/HAP composites show a weak crystalline structure, being similar to nano-HAP existed in human bone tissue, thus suggesting that TSF molecules affect the crystallinity of HAP. TG analysis shows that TSF/HAP composite prepared by adding 17.6% TSF contains 11% TSF.