The temperature evolution in inertia friction welded Inconel 718 joint was measured by means of embedding thermocouples in specimens. The spatial distributions of temperature in the axial and radial directions of weldments were obtained and the varying characteristics of the temperature distributions were analyzed. The results indicate that the heating rate during the inertia welding process decreases gradually. The temperature distribution in the radial direction of weldment is uneven and the temperature rises gradually with the increase of distance from the center. But the relation between the temperature and distance is nonlinear. In the axial direction, the shorter the distance from the initial friction surface is, the bigger the rate of temperature increment becomes and the higher the peak temperature and the temperature gradient are. Meanwhile, the longer the distance from the initial friction surface is, the later the peak temperature appears and the longer the delay time gets. Moreover, the results of microhardness testing in a welded joint prove that the measurement of temperature in this study is reliable.