In this paper, a quantitative analysis for the micro geometrical characteristic of rough surface profile is researched with the fractal theory. Firstly, the fractal dimensions of profile curves under different surface roughness are obtained by using the vertical section method, and then the theoretical relationship between the surface roughness and the fractal dimension is built. Secondly, according to the surface profile curve composed of many triangle peaks, the angles and heights of them are calculated to study the micro geometrical size. Through their variation laws changing with the fractal parameters, the calculation formulas of their average values related to fractal dimension are obtained by using mathematics regression tools. Finally, combing three theoretical relationships built above, the geometrical characteristic of the rough surface profile can be calculated with the surface roughness and accuracy requirement known.