Powder metallurgy (PM) nickel-based superalloy is regarded as one of the most important aerospace industry materials. A series of turning tests in a wide range of speeds with different inserts were carried out to select the proper tool material. Then, the effect of cutting parameters on the cutting force, cutting temperature and tool wear was investigated for the selected insert. The effect of cutting parameters on the tool wear was examined through SEM and TEM micrographs. The experiential functions of tool life, cutting force and cutting temperature were developed. Finally, the cutting parameters in PM nickel-based superalloy dry turning were optimized based on tool life-efficiency contour analysis. The present approach and results will be helpful for understanding the machinability of PM nickel-based superalloy during dry turning for the manufacturing engineers.