ACF/CNT composites were fabricated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growing on the surface of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The properties of ACF/CNT composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and BET surface area measurements. In addition, experiments were carried out to investigate effect of contact time, pH and temperature on ACF/CNT composites adsorption ability for rhodamine B from aqueous solution. The results show removal rate of rhodamine B reaches to 98.99％ at 120 min as initial concentration of rhodamine B is 5 mg/L, pH is 7 and temperature is 50 . Adsorption mechanism of ACF/CNT composites is simply discussed.