Humic acid has been extensively used in the fields like industry, agriculture, medicine, environment protection, etc. As a kind of potential organic resources that being developed and utilized, humic acid is drawing more and more attention from the world. China is abundant in coal resource; the lignite of China contains a lot of humic acid. Extraction humic acid from lignite creates favorable conditions for the development of coal industry and agriculture industry, has broad utilization prospect. By combining the method of nitric acid preoxidation and the method of alkali solution and acid eduction, the humic acid was extracted from the lignite. The orthogonal experimental method and FTIR were integrated in this study. The influences of nitrate concentrations, acid-coal proportion, oxidized temperature, oxidation time, extraction liquid concentration, liquid-solid ratio, extraction temperature and extraction time etc. on the process of extracting humic acid were examined. The results indicate the optimal processing condition can achieved when using sodium pyrophosphate and sodium hydroxide solution as the extraction agents, the rate of humic acid production can reach to 39.25%. And the total content of humic acid production can reach to 46.14%.