The desorption and regeneration of a novel granular bentonite composite adsorbent were investigated in this paper. Copper ions were adsorbed onto the composite adsorbent firstly, then the effects of reagent categories, reagent concentration, desorption time, adsorbed copper ion amount, and temperature on the desorption and regeneration of the adsorbent were studied. The results show that the desorption and regeneration of the composite adsorbent adsorbed copper ions can be carried out by acids, alkalis, or salts. The desorption and regeneration efficiency are closely connected with the experimental conditions and the categories of chemical reagents. Acids have the desorption capacity for composite adsorbent after adsorbing, but they need to be regenerated by other methods. Salts have both desorption and regeneration capacity. Alkalis show the strongest desorption and regeneration capacity.