The mechanical properties of Ph. Pubescens were an important index to measure quality of bamboo. We research effects of soil available N (AN), available P (AP) and available K (AK) on mechanical properties of Ph. Pubescens in Jiangxi province. The results showed that there was no obvious regular between soil NPK content and mechanical properties of Ph. Pubescens. The anti-bending strength (ABS), anti-extension strength (AES) and anti-shears strength (ASS) of Ph. Pubescens were 148MPa, 98MPa and 15.6MPa, respectively, the maximum shear-force (MSF) was 2.0KN, and the anti-pressure strength (APS) was 59Mpa. The APS of all samples were higher than that of the middle timber. The APS was high why the vascular bundle of Ph. Pubescens arranges rules. The effect of AK on APS was larger than that of AN and AP. The MPF was 10.1 KN, The internal structures of bamboo determined their mechanical properties, so the anatomy of bamboo could also affect the mechanical properties of bamboo.