Different distributed residual stresses were introduced by quenching and two shot-peening treatments on 7075 aluminum alloy. The residual stress distributions and micro-hardness profiles in surface layers were measured. Pre-stress coefficient characterizing contribution of local residual stresses to local yield strength is introduced to analyze residual stress relaxation under cyclic loading. Load testing shows that re-distribution of residual stresses and proportional decrease of the pre-stress coefficient would occur in the non-uniform structural residual stresses introduced by quenching, while great stress relaxation and non-linear decrease of the pre-stress coefficient would occur in the uniform surface residual stresses introduced by shot-peening. Additionally, advantages of surface compressive residual stress and micro yield strength on anti-fatigue property and on restraining initiation and propagation of surface micro cracks should be considered in the usually conservative engineering design.