Combined with the merits of light wood frame structure and Chinese ancient wood structure, a light wall composed of oriented structural straw board (OSSB) and tennon-and-mortise connection wood frame (TMCWF) was developed. The wall build-up with several wall-modular those are composed of wood frames and panels based on its width, the wood frame members are connected with tennon-and-mortise, and the panel is OSSB which is cheap and low-carbon, so the wall have many merits such as lower cost, better earthquake-resistance and good to environment protection. To research the shear behavior of the light wall composed of OSSB and TMCWF, nine wall-modular were tested under level unidirectional loading. The performances of the specimens such as the damage characteristic, shear capacity and rigidity are obtained. Factors that influence the shear capacity and elastic rigidity, including space of vertical frame members, nail space, panel thickness, type of panel and vertical load, were analyzed. And the shear behaviors of the light wall composed of OSSB and TMCWF and the light wood frame wall were compared. Experimental results show that the shear strength and rigidity of the developed wall with TMCWF are higher than those of the light wood frame wall. And the panel type, the panel thickness, nail space of the panel are the major factors to influence the shear strength of the wall-modular.