High performance fiber-reinforced cement composites (HPFRCCs) show multiple cracks and a limited damage tolerance capability due to the debonding of the fibers of the cement matrix. For practical applications, it is necessary to investigate the fractural behavior of HPFRCCs to understand the mechanism of the microbehavior of a cement matrix containing reinforcing fibers. We have investigated the acoustic emission (AE) signals in HPFRCCs under monotonic and cyclic uniaxial compressive loads. Four types of specimen were tested. The experimental parameters studied were: the type of fiber (polyethylene or polyvinyl alcohol), the hybrid type (with steel cord), and the loading pattern. The data shows that the progress of the damage in HPFRCCs in the compressive mode is characteristic of the type of hybrid fiber and its volume fraction. From the AE data, the second and third compressive load cycles resulted in a successive decrease in the amplitude compared to the first compressive load cycle. In addition, an AE Kaiser effect was observed in HPFRCCs specimens up to 80% of their ultimate strength. These observations suggest that the AE Kaiser effect has potential for use as a new tool to monitor the loading history of HPFRCCs.