As a typical composite structural type, concrete-Filled Steel Tubes (CFSTs) have been widely employed in civil engineering structures, especially in super high-rise buildings because of their enhanced load-carrying capacity and ductility. The uniformity and quality of the on-site cast concrete within the tube and the interface bonding performance between the steel tube and the concrete have received extensive attention. In this paper, Piezoelectric ceramic materials, such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) and a kind of functional smart aggregate (SA) based on PZT together are employed to evaluate the concrete quality and the bonding performance of CFST columns of a super high-rise building with a design height over 400 meters and with large cross-section CFST columns. Based on the wavelet packet analysis on the measurements of the PZT sensors, results show that no obvious damage and defect is detected and the concrete qualify and the interface of large cross-section CFST columns of this super high-rise building are in good condition. The proposed monitoring technology has great potential to be applied to practical engineering.