Based on the investigation of a constructing dumbbell-shaped concrete-filled steel arch bridge in Nanning, Guangxi, continuous on-site experimental researches on temperature field and its effects were carried out under the influence of hydration heat of concrete in the molding process of concrete-filled dumb-bell steel tubular arch bridge. On the basis of measured data, analysis on time-history law of temperature field and its effect under the impact of hydration heat of concrete of composite structure of concrete-filled steel tubes is made. The results reveal that temperature variation of hydration heat of the concrete within the steel tube is showed as follows: “Temperature up-continuous high temperature-temperature down-balance”. The structural temperature field, generated under the effect of hydration hea in the process of molding arch rib, is nonlinear temperature field. Concrete hydration temperature effect of crown section basically changes with temperature field simultaneously, while the residual strain of arch foot section is relatively large; hydration temperature effect of L/4 Section emerges peak fluctuations in concrete pouring process and finally levels off. Hydration temperature field of concrete has a great effect on crown section, which makes the steel tube continuously withstand the tension and compression alternatively, while the influence on the arch foot steel tube is not obvious. Surface strains of L/8, L/4, 3L/8 sections of steel tube transit from single-wave peak to dual-wave peak and finally turn into a single wave peak.