Based on fractal geometry theory and surface roughness characterization technology, this paper presents the fractal characterization of nonuniform corrosion degree of corroded reinforcing steel bars. The surface profile curves of different corroded reinforcing steel bars were obtained and their fractal dimensions were calculated in order to describe the fractal characteristics. As is shown by the results, the surface profile curves of rebar have statistical fractal feature. However, fractal dimension is not sensitive to small changes in profile curves. By combining fractal dimension D with scale parameter C, characteristic profile parameter r* is derived to characterize the surface profile of corroded reinforcing steel bars sensitively, which realized the unity of multi-scale similarity measurement and absolute measurement. The results of this analysis will become the basis for corrosion damage evolution of corroded reinforcing steel bars.