Damage evolution equations of asphalt mixture specimen beams were analyzed using the fracture toughness index and the ultimate tension strain index, respectively. The fracture toughness of the asphalt mixture was calculated by FEM. Damage evolution equations controlled apart by the stress and the strain were given. Their coefficients were back-calculated using partial fatigue tests data. The fully coupled stress-damage method and the fully coupled strain-damage method were used. The life prediction precision of each equation was verified by residual fatigue tests data. The results show that FEM is effective to calculate the fracture toughness of the asphalt mixture. Two damage evolution equations have better life prediction abilities comparing with the S-N equation used usually.