On the stability analysis of complex slope, the determination of rock-soil masses shear strength parameters is very important. It’s very necessary to use the back analysis method to verify experiment result of rock-soil masses parameters for the important slope engineering. Because the sensitivity of shear strength parameters to displacement parameters is very poor, so that we couldn’t get the satisfactory shear strength parameters result by traditional back analysis method. Aiming at the problems of traditional back analysis method, this paper puts forward a totally new method of back analysis, which is applicable to the shear strength parameters of rock-soil masses through the integration of complex variable differentiation method, optimization method and elastic-plasticity finite-element method. The method mathematically back calculates shear strength parameters of rock-soil masses on the basis of displacement of measuring point. The sample calculation result indicates that the method possesses high accuracy and searching efficiency, and is a method of back analysis of displacement deserving popularizing.