The deterioration on sulfate attack was investigated both in physical crystallization and the chemical erosion. Specimens that suffered long-term immersion and dry-wet cycles in saturated sodium sulfate solution are compared to trace the physical attack. And the chemical erosion was conducted by comparing specimens which have been suffered long-term immersion in saturated sodium sulfate solution and saturated limestone solution. In the investigation, the non-destructive detecting indexes, such as the ultrasonic velocity, and the dynamic modulus of elasticity were measured. The permeability, the porosity and mechanical strength at 28-day age were measured. The flexural/compressive strength was measured after 90 wet-dry cycles. And then all the specimens were cut into cubes to take the measure of compressive strength. Based on the experiments, feasibility of various parameters, such permeability, relative dynamic modulus of elasticity, ultrasonic velocity and relative flexural/compressive strength, were investigated to evaluate the concrete deterioration. The results indicate that there is a close relationship between the deterioration by sulfate attack and concrete permeability, so the reduction of permeability is effective in promoting the resistance. The index of the resistance expressed by the dynamic modulus of elasticity ratio is comparable to that expressed by the relative flexural strength. A novel method was suggested in evaluating concrete by sulfate attack, namely, combined with some mechanical tests, the parameter of relative dynamic modulus of elasticity can be used to evaluate the deterioration; the permeability denoted as the amount of transporting charges within 6 hours can be used to evaluate the properties to sulfate attack.