Corrosion is a negative contributor on the structural integrity of rock bolt and leads to degradation of the mechanical properties of steel rock bolt. Exposure to chloride, seawater, salt and saltwater and deicing chemical environments influences rock bolt and weakens it. In order to evaluate the influence of corrosion and the size of the steel on the mechanical properties of rock bolt, an experimental investigation was conducted on rock bolt whose rebar is 8, 12, 16, and 18 mm diameter, and which were artificially corroded for 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 days. By the simulation corrosion test of loaded and unloaded bolts in Na2SO4 solution, the relation curves of the mechanical performance with the corrosive conditions and the corrosion time are given. The mechanical performance is compared between these two types of bolts. At the same time, the influential trend of the load on the mechanical performance of the corroded bolt is analyzed. The laboratory tests suggest that corrosion duration and rebar size had a significant impact on the strength and ductility degradation of the specimens. after being corroded in Na2SO4 solution, both the ultimate bearing capacity and the maximal tensility of loaded bolt decrease far more than those of unloaded bolt, and the endurance and service life of loaded bolt will also be shortened much more severely. The tensile mechanical properties before and after corrosion indicated progressive variation and drastic drop in their values.