Aerated concrete is kind of normal silicate products, which is made by hydration of lime, cement, gypsum fly ash/sand, forming agent. And it has become the major wall material of frame structure caused by its characteristics of light weigh, high strength, and heat insulation. Petroleum coke is the by-product of delayed coking system in oil refinery. Oil refinery in coast area of east China mainly exploits high-sulfur crude oil from Middle East. The petroleum coke contains even 5-8% sulphur, and calcium injection desulphurization is usually employed to reduce the SO2 emission, and leads to that Ca/S of reaction is up to 2.0-2.5. Therefore, there remain many unhydrated Lime and desulfurized gypsum in petroleum coke. It presents drying powdery and a favorable cementing performance. In this paper, chemical and mineral compositions of petroleum coke desulfuration residue are analyzed by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and X-ray diffracto-meter. And lime and gypsum are replaced by petroleum coke desulfuration residue to produce aerated concrete. The experimental results indicate that products made of high-sulfur petroleum coke desulfuration residue and fly ash has better performance than traditional lime aerated concrete products. The fly ash-desulfuration residue aerated concrete products possesses the dry density level of B06  and strength of 4.5MPa. Consequently, it should have expansive application potential because of their prominent economic, social, and environmental benefits.