Objective: To evaluate the growth of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) on the silk fibroin (SF) nanofibers scaffold. Methods: The purified OECs were cultured with poly-L-lysine (control group) and 1200 nm SF nanofibers (experimental group). The morphological features and growth characteristics of which were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy. Nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) p75 were applied to identify OECs by immunostaining. SEM was used to observe the adherence and spreading of OECs on different substrates. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the proliferation activity of OECs both on the control and experimental scaffolds. Results: The isolated OECs reached confluence after 4-5 days of culture, which were stained for antibody NGFRp75(+). The morphology of OECs on the 1200 nm SF nanofibers was similar to that on the control group. The SEM clearly revealed the close interaction between the OECs and the nanofbers. The OECs on SF nanofibers still maintain its original characteristic phenotypes. The MTT showed that the most obvious proliferation was reached over 10 days. The differences of OD values between 1200 nm SF and PLL were significant at day 5, 7 (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference at day 10. Conclusion: SF nanofibers scaffold could support the growth of OECs, and may be a promising tissue-engineered scaffold for the repair of SCI.