In order to provide technical support to the quality check departments, this paper researches on the identification of the rhinoceros horn and its substitutes. The rhinoceros horn and its substitutes have been respectively studied by means of appearance and characteristic analysis and infrared spectral analysis. The results show: due to their similar appearances and characteristics, it is difficult to distinguish the rhinoceros horn and its substitutes. The rhinoceros horn has two absorption peaks of P-H stretching vibration of sphingolipid at 2350cm-1, while other horns only have one or no absorption peak in this region. What’s more, compared with other horns, it has weak absorption peaks of C=O stretching vibration of hexosamine at 1733 cm-1, and absorption peaks of S-O stretching vibration of taurine at 881 cm-1. However, other horns have none of these absorption peaks.