Differentiation of materials in optical method is significant and widely applied in engineering. The target of detection is usually not a light source, therefore, we differentiate materials of target by analyzing the information of the scattered light from the surface of the target which is lighten by given light source or natural light. The analysis of the information in the scattered light becomes the most important issue in this condition. Based on the discussion of several kinds of optical differentiation method of materials, a measuring experiment has been developed to the scattering characteristics of given materials which could be described by the modeling given in this paper. The experimental result indicates that the application of optical differentiation method of materials could be widely expanded by using suitable materials’ scattering characteristics modeling method. Relative modeling methods of material scattering characteristics and their possibility of applying in materials differentiation engineering are also be discussed.