Bifidobacterium bifidum were encapsulated as fresh cultures in water insoluble food grade microcapsules by emulsification–internal gelation technique, using gelatin, pectin, alginate and chitose as immobilization material. The optical photomicroscope photograph and laser scanning confocal microscope photograph shows that the microcapsules obtained by this method has narrow size distribution (10-20 μm). Survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum in microcapsules was 109cfu•g-1 , and the embedding ratio was 72.32%. The survival was remaining more than 108cfu•g-1 after exposure to gastric acid and bile acid, which implies that the microcapsules expressed superior acid resistance. These microcaosules were disaggregation subtotal after 15 min in simulated intestinal juices, and the release rate was 96%. The survival was 108 cfu•g-1 at room temperature after 1 year by classic accelerated test. The results indicate that encapsulation of Bifidobacterium bifidum in alginate microcapsules is a good approach to prolonging viability.