Multi-axis winding machine can realize automatic winding of composite elbow, but its mechanical structure and control system is complex, which restricts its industrial application. In this paper, two-axis FRP elbow winding machine applied teaching and playback method is designed, which accomplish the winding of elbow by controlling the rotation motion of the mandrel and the reciprocating motion of the carriage along a semicircular track. In teaching mode, the positions of spindle and carriage are collected and stored as teaching document when the spindle rotates a certain angle, while in playback mode the control method of electronic cam is applied to realize the playback winding. The mechanical structure and the working principle of elbow winding machine are introduced, and the control system of winding machine is analyzed. It is proved that the system is stable, and it can wind certain type of composite elbows.