The degradation reaction of cellulose under the condition of microwave irradiation in an acidic aqueous medium including H2O2 has been investigated. The main factors, the solution acidity, reaction temperature and time, can have an effect on the cellulose degradation. The cellulose oxidative degradable polymerization was associated mainly with the action of releasing from H2O2. The scheme reflecting the main pathways of cellulose degradation in the reaction system of HCl/ H2O2 is proposed. A comparative study was investigated to evaluate the effects of microwave and conventional heating on cellulose degradation.