Elaeagnus angustifolia L., a hardwood species in the family of Elaeagnaceae, has long been used as part of traditional medicines to treat various diseases. However, limited study is available on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of E. angustifolia bark. In this study, we undertook a phytochemical investigation of E. angustifolia bark by gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. And antioxidant activity of the crude and following soluble fractions of E. angustifolia bark was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. GC-MS investigation of 95% EtOH crude extracts from E. angustifolia bark detected 40 compounds, and DPPH free radical scavenging assay indicated that the bark EtOAc and BuOH soluble fractions exhibited significant antioxidant potential (IC50 values of 12.1 and 12.4 µg/ml, respectively) comparing with α-tocopherol and BHT (IC50 values 12.3 and 13.8 µg/ml, respectively), which were used as positive controls.