Based on concepts of structural modal flexibility and modal assurance criterion (MAC), a new objective function is defined and studied for constrained optimization problems (COP) on structural damage detection (SDD) in this paper. Compared with traditionally objective function, which is defined based on natural frequencies and MAC, effect of objective functions on robustness of SDD calculation is evaluated through numerical simulation of a 2-storey rigid frame. Structural damages are identified by solving the COP on SDD based on an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm. Weak and multiple damage scenarios are mainly considered in various noise conditions. Some illustrated results show that the newly defined objective function is better than the traditional ones. It can be used to identify the damage locations but also to quantify the severity of weak and multiple damages in measurement noise conditions.