An image-based microscale analysis was conducted by using finite element method (FEM) to simulate the thermal residual stresses in directionally solidified eutectic (DSE) oxide ceramic composites from the thermal expansion and elastic properties and the microstructure features of the constituent phases. This microscale analysis allows a real simulation of morphologies of constituent phases such as size, array and shape. Meanwhile, this model can be applied not only for the calculation of thermal residual stresses, but also for the calculation of mechanical properties. In this work, simulations focus on the distribution of thermal residual stresses in the directionally solidified eutectic (DSE) Al2O3/ Y3Al5O12 (YAG) ceramic composite. A good agreement between simulated and measured thermal residual stresses was observed.