Ultrasonic surface rolling processing (USRP) is a surface nanocrystallization method developed recently, which can bring metal surface with superior properties. In order to obtain the material response during USRP, a 3D dynamic finite element model was adopted to study the effects of parameters. This model was validated by experimental results of residual stress. Simulated results indicate that large ultrasonic vibration parameters generate high stress and strain, where static pressure plays a more important role than vibration amplitude. Yet high spindle speed leads to small stress and strain.