Struvite (MgNH4PO4∙6H2O) is an insoluble double salt. It can precipitate in places such as pipes, aerators and pumps, which could lead to substantial problems influencing the normal operation of wastewater treatment equipments. At present, removal of ammonium nitrogen from various wastewaters by the formation of struvite has been widely investigated. This paper reviewed the research and application efforts concerning the treatment of ammonium nitrogen by struvite precipitation, which were obtained at home and abroad in recent years. The mechanism and influence factors of struvite precipitation for ammonium nitrogen removal were discussed. Additionally, the problems that still should be resolved and the research directions in future were pointed out.