As an important aeronautical assembly materials, such as aeronautical gas turbine and turbine plate et al, K4169 alloy has enough high ability of resistance to high temperature deformation and a long low-period fatigue life when working, and its grain structure should be equiaxed dendrite as fine as possible in casting. Chemical grain refinement method was used to refine K4169 alloy to satisfy the demands mentioned above. By using new intermetallic compound grain refiners, chemical grain refinement casting technology was carried out to refine K4169 superalloy. The results show that the grain morphology has been transformed from dendrite to granulation, the average principal axis length of the primary dendrites has been shorted and the segregation ratios of main alloy elements mitigate with the decrease of grain size in fine-grained castings, which indicates the remarkable effects of grain refinement. In addition, basing on the model of equiaxed dendrite growth solute diffusion, continuous nucleation model, dendrite tip growth kinetics model and cellular automata (CA) technique to coupled simulate the grain structure formation process of K4169 alloy in chemical grain refinement casting, which agreed very well with experiments results, this will do much contribution to the theoretic base for studying high temperature mechanics performance and performance of resistance to corrosion of K4169 superalloy.