The relationship between the groove structure of the direct current plane electromagnetic pump and efficiency has been investigated in this paper. Methods By using mercury as working medium, experiments have been conducted through simulation of direct current plane electromagnetic pump. The comparision of efficiencies is obtained by measuring the values of hydrostatic head of various groove structures under the fixed working parameters are measured. The groove structure of the electromagnetic pump has a great influence on its hydrostatic head and its relative efficiency. Several important ways can be used to improve the efficiency of the electromagnetic pump including restraining the overflow of working current, optimizing the direction of the electrolines, reducing the inner surface area of the groove and increasing the entrance force.