A thick Fe-based amorphous and nanocrystalline composite coating was prepared by in-situ tungsten inert gas (TIG) cladding method. The results show that the cladding coating mainly consists of amorphous phase and nanocrystalline grains. The microstructure study shows that the Fe-based composite coatings have unique microstructure including nano-sized grains surrounded by nano-scale amorphous shell layer (encapsulated structure) and the homogeneously distributed dendrites/cellular crystals. The unique microstructure gives rise to the superior micro-hardness and wear resistance of the coating. The Fe-based coatings have great potential as promising wear-resistance structural materials used in electric power and cement industry.