Experiments were conducted on copper subjected to High Pressure Torsion to investigate the evolution of microstructure and microhardness with shear strain, γ. Observations have been carried out in the longitudinal section for a proper demonstration of the structure morphology. An elongated dislocation cell/subgrain structure was observed at relatively low strain level. With increasing strain, the elongated subgrains transformed into elongated grains and finally into equiaxed grains with high angle grain boundaries. Measurements showed the hardness increases with increasing γ then tends to saturations when γ >5. The variation tendency of microhardness with γ can be simulated by Voce-type equation.