An injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) modified with sodium citrate was developed in the present study. The effects of sodium citrate concentration on the injectability, mechanical strength, and the self-setting properties of CPC were systematically investigated. The addition of sodium citrate significantly improved injectability and compressive strength of CPC. The specimens have an injectability of 93% and compressive strength of 36.43 ± 2.64 MPa at 15 wt% sodium citrate concentration, compared to injectability of 75% and compressive strength of 23.15 ± 2.12 MPa of the specimens without sodium citrate. XRD spectra indicated that addition of sodium citrate did not change the hydration reaction of CPC and the reaction product was mainly poorly crystallized hydroxyapatite. In conclusion, CPC developed in this work exhibited excellent injectability and high strength, which should be a promising material for bone repair.