The cylinder-piston ring pair is one of the most important rubbing pairs of the internal combustion engine. The current studies showed that the micro geometry of friction surface morphology has a great effect on the performance. In this study, the terminological system of cylinder liner - piston ring was regarded as the object. The surface of each cylinder was treated with some pits and grooves. Then, the cylinder-piston ring experiments were implemented using a tester. The comparison analysis of vibration signals from diesel engine condition body surface and tribiological properties between conventional cylinder and a variety of surface treatment of cylinder was conducted. The effects of cylinder surface on diesel engine performance were investigated and some conclusions were obtained and presented in the paper.