Oxidation of ferrous iron by moderately thermophilic species of the genus Ferroplasma is of considerable potential value in commercial bioleaching operations. A collection of strains was enriched and isolated from a number of natural or industrial acidic sites at 45 and 55°C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that all strains were members of the Order Thermoplasmatales. Stains BH8 and BH12 showed 98% sequence similarity with Ferroplasma acidiphilum strain YT and DR1 respectively. Strains BH7 and BH10 were closely related to the moderately thermophilic species Ferroplasma cupricumulans. Strain BH9, a moderately thermophilic organotroph, was unrelated to previously described species and probably represents a novel genus. Strains BH8 and BH12 showed some unique physiological differences to the type species F. acidiphilum. Unlike F. acidiphilum, both strains were moderately thermophilic with a temperature range for strains BH8 and BH12 of 24 to 61°C and 27 to 49°C respectively. Strain BH12 grew organotrophically on Darland’s Medium containing glucose and yeast extract and chemomixotrophically on Darland’s Medium supplemented with ferrous sulphate. Moderately thermophilic species of Ferroplasma and Ferroplasma-like genera appear widely distributed geographically and possess considerable physiological and phylogenetic diversity that may benefit industrial bioleaching processes.