Microbial diversity associated with uranium mine areas of Jaduguda, India has been investigated using a culture independent molecular approach. Soil samples collected from existing and proposed mine sites were analyzed for physicochemical parameters. Community DNA was extracted from five samples. Small subunit rRNA gene (16S rRNA) was PCR amplified using bacterial primers. The diversity of the total bacterial community was described at molecular level by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Dominant bacterial groups (represents by OTUs) selected by ARDRA were identified by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. From the bacterial rDNA clone library around 230 clones were used for further analysis. The unique OTUs and number of clones representing such OTUs were determined. Dominant OTUs were sequenced and identified. These phylotypes spanned a wide range within the bacterial domain occupying Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria as major phyla. About 46 % of clones sequenced from various sites were identified as Proteobacteria. The present findings on microbial diversity at the molecular level are the first of its kind for uranium mine sites of India. Around 20 % of the clone sequences showed little affiliation with known taxa and probably represent new organisms adapted to this habitat.