On-machine illumination is a key technology in industry machine vision. In this paper, two on-machine illuminant schemes were introduced. Firstly, for vision measurement of large-scale workpiece, an adjustable LED lighting source was established on the worktable of NC milling machine. High-quality image sequence was acquired to guarantee the effect of image mosaicing. Secondly, for texture classification of machined surface, a kind of dome LED illuminant was set up on the lathe. Experiment results show that red light is appropriate selection for on-machine illumination. Moreover, the size and the shape of illuminant should suit for the situation of the machine tool and workpiece.