Based on Landsat ETM+ data within the metropolitan area of Lanzhou, China, green vegetation(GV) and impervious surface was extracted by a constrained linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA),together with single window algorithm to invert land surface temperature ,and the correlation analysis was then conducted to examine the relationship between urban heat island (UHI) effect and impervious surface. Four types of end members with high albedo, GV, soil and low albedo are selected to model complicated urban land cover, estimation accuracy is assessed using Root-Mean-Square (RMS)error and color aerial images, with the help of Mantel and Partial Mantel. Spatial relationship of land surface temperatures (LST), impervious surface and GV were analyzed. Results indicate that impervious surface distribution and GV can be derived from Landsat TM/ETM+ images with satisfactory precision. Impervious surface and GV were positively correlated with UHI, while LST has space dependence, it has high space dependence, and was higher correlated with impervious surface than GV.