A review is given of what kind technological aspects were used for realizing the defect engineering in semiconductor layers or crystals. The possibilities to change the free carrier capture are presented. The effect of Fermi level pinning at the surface levels allow to avoid the influence of barriers on the photoconductivity as well as to increase a role of recombination in the inter-crystalline region. The isovalent doping or the creation of the clusters allows transforming the defect distribution in the crystal bulk. The detector structure using the high electric field can introduce the recombination in at the contacts therefore allow diminishing a role of carrier capture in the bulk of structure. The cluster generation allows to increase the capture rate in the definite volume by a proton irradiation. The experience of different technologies for Si, GaAs, PbS, CdSe are presented.