This work studies the influence of machining parameters, such as cutting speed and forces, feed rate, cutting depth, and tool flank wear, on the generation of surface residual stresses in DIN 100Cr6 steel conical bearing rings submitted to a hard turning process. A complete factorial planning was used to perform the tests and projected measurement. Cutting forces were measured by a piezoelectric dynamometer and residual stresses were determined by the hole-drilling method using strain gage. Results showed that after 2000 m of tool machining, phase transformations had been observed on sample surfaces, with white layer formation, and deeper, a dark layer whose thickness varied depending on the severity level of turning and the tool wear (in machined distance). Increase in tool wear generated minor values of compressive residual stresses and the surface roughness presented almost the same values in all experiments, except when the bigger parameters were used.